вторник, 22 августа 2017 г.

14. GLOSS OF SUBSTANCES

14. GLOSS OF SUBSTANCES

The reasons for gloss of substances, as in the case of the color of substances, are:
1) qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements of the substance;
2) quality of particles bombarding elements;
Gloss is an optical property:
1) either originally inherent to the chemical elements of the substance – appeared together with the emergence of these elements;
2) or acquired by friction caused by another substance that has strong chemical bonds.
Let's consider successively both cases of existence of the gloss. At first - inherent, then – acquired.
Gloss is inherent in elements, which manifest metallic properties.
The metallic properties of chemical elements are due Are caused by the manifestation outward of the total Field of Attraction, but not the Field of Repulsion.  And the more its magnitude - the Field of Attraction, the stronger the metallic properties of the element.
The more particles with the gravitational field in the chemical element, the larger its total Field of Attraction.  However, this does not mean that this element will have the manifested externally Field Attraction. After all, if for example the particles with repulsion fields will prevail in its peripheral layers, so they, in this way, will shield the Field of Attraction of the Element core. And as a result, not a Field of Attraction, but a Repulsion Field can manifest itself outward from such an element.
Elements-metals, unlike nonmetallic elements, continue to build their "body" constantly at any opportunity. Thanks to the Fields of Attraction existing in metal elements free elementary particles of any quality, which find themselves in a coverage area of these Fields, they are attracted to such elements. Attracted free elementary particles accumulate in the intervals between the elements and on the surface of the metallic body. 
Accumulation of optical photons of any type in the composition of a substance, consisting of metal elements, just leads to the appearance of characteristic metallic gloss. The mechanism of its occurrence is explained as follows.
Those surfaces of chemical elements of substance, which do not participate in the formation of chemical bonds with each other, usually reflect "light" (and other elementary particles). And of course first of all, these are chemical elements on the surface of a body containing metal elements. Moreover, not only optical photons accumulate, and elementary particles of any quality that fall within the zone of action of the gravitational field of the substance. For example, infrared or radio photons. Herewith the particles with the gravitational fields are attracted best of all, since they in contrast to particles with a repulsion field do not create a repulsive force in relation to a chemical element.
However, the main role in the appearance of metallic gloss is played by elementary particles with repulsion fields. 
Elements-metals, unlike nonmetallic elements, due to the large magnitude of the Fields of Attraction have a remarkable ability to accumulate not only free particles with the fields of attraction, but also particles with repulsion fields. Particles with Repulsion Fields create a Repulsion Force in the particles to be contacted. However, it is due to the large force of attraction caused by the elements of metals the repulsive force of particles Yang does not cause them to move away from these elements. So they are withheld in their composition.
Here it is necessary to remind that the particles with repulsion fields predominate in the composition of the radiation of any celestial body (for example, the Sun). Herewith, the number of particles, belonging to the radio and infrared ranges, is the largest. 
So, the particles with repulsion fields mainly of the radio and infrared ranges accumulating on the surface of metal elements create a kind of "protective layer" in the form of ether emitted by particles (this is the ether of the Repulsion Fields). 
Thus, the accumulation on the surface of the metal elements the particles with repulsion fields leads to the fact that the falling on the element particles are poorly absorbed and almost completely reflected (repelled). We perceive reflection in the unchanged qualitative and quantitative composition of the falling optical photons as metalic glosser.
And, pay attention. Due to the fact that the elements of metals have large fields of attraction accumulated by them on the surface of free particles, which are responsible for the increased reflectivity of metals, when colliding with them of falling photons are not emitted themselves. Ie they remain in the chemical element. That is why gloss of many metals has the mirrored character. This means that they do not add to the reflected light beam the emitted ray. If, however, the reflected beam is added to the emitted ray - ie accumulated free particles are also emitted in a significant amount, then it is no longer a question of glosser, but of the white color of a chemical element.
As is known, there are many types of chemical elements of metals. They differ from each other in the magnitude of their Fields of Attraction. Those of them, whose Fields of Attraction are not so large, will not have a mirror shine. Instead, there will be a dull sheen, somewhere close to white color. And all this is due to the fact that these elements emit a lot of their own accumulated free particles.
Not only optical photons may be reflected. Reflection of IR and radio photons occurs even better because they absorb less ether in a unit of time. And, consequently, the force of attraction that arises in them with respect to the element is less. It is known, for example, that metals reflect the predominant number of IR and radio photons falling on them. Radio photons are reflected by metals in a greater degree compared to IR photons. The last property - the reflection of radio-photons - is the basis for receiving of radio and television broadcasts.

среда, 5 июля 2017 г.

13. GRAY COLOR - WHAT'S THE CAUSE OF ITS EXISTENCE?

13. GRAY COLOR - WHAT'S THE CAUSE OF ITS EXISTENCE?
As is known from experience, at low intensity of the falling "light" (at twilight) all the colored substances acquire a dark gray color. This is due to the very low content of visible photons in the emitted-reflected "light beams" in general. Although some their number is still contained, which explains the presence at least of gray color at substances. And besides that, the gray colors in the twilight are not quite gray. Substances are characterized by a subtle hue, which is well evident at higher irradiance. The degree of color discrimination is determined by the intensity of the falling "light".
But, in addition to the gray color that appears at dusk the gray color exists independently - ie it manifests itself irrespective of the level of illumination.
The chemical element will be painted in gray: 1) first, if  the areas with "bare" visible photons of a certain color initially are not present at its periphery that does not allow to create any color sensation (note that the same thing happens in the case the emergence of color of both white and black colors); 2) secondly, very few zones with the Fields of Attraction are present in the external manifestation of the quality of such elements and the magnitude of these Fields is not sufficient, which is the reason for the weak accumulation of elementary particles (including visible photons). Therefore, in the emitted-reflected "light rays" of such elements there is no predominance of visible photons of any quality that are able to create a visual sensation of any color. And in addition, in an emitted-reflected ray there are very few of accumulated free visible photons.
We can assume that the gray color is a light tone of black color. I.e. a zero coloration together with the emission of a small amount of accumulated visible photons. 


воскресенье, 19 марта 2017 г.

12. WHITENING EFFECT OF THE SUN AND BLEACHERS

12. WHITENING EFFECT OF THE SUN AND BLEACHERS

Surely you noticed that things for a long time exposed to intense solar radiation “lose color”. “Loss of color” means that the tone of things’ color becomes lighter.  Used in everyday life bleaching agents have exactly the same effect on the color of things. What happens in this case with the chemical elements of the bleached substances?
If we explain what is happening in a nutshell, then everything is very simple - excess amount of free elementary particles are accumulated on the surface of chemical elements. And among these elementary particles there are many visible photons of all colors.    
Let’s, at first, consider the mechanism of “loss of color” on the example of the action of solar radiation.
The solar particles emitted by the Sun moving by inertia reach the planets. They continue their movement. Herewith they are attracted by elements of the atmosphere, through which they move. Chemical elements of the atmosphere accumulate free particles on their surface. Further these particles descend towards the center of the planet, moving from element to element on their surface.
Thus, elements of all substances on the surface accumulate free particles in two ways. Either those particles are accumulated that inertially move in the composition of a light ray and directly collide with these elements. Or those particles are accumulated, which move from element to element, flowing down.  
So, when the elements of some substance accumulate particles, directly meeting their flow, experiencing a collision with them, then they accumulate much more particles (including visible photons), if when they accumulate particles moving from element to element.
That's why, when substances are exposed to direct sunlight (in a hot climate and in the hot season), they accumulate on their surface excessive amount of free particles and therefore of visible photons of all colors. As result, there occurs color clarification of this substance. The mechanism of color clarification is described in detail in the article “Light and dark color tones (when the intensity of the falling light changes)”.
 Bleaching agents work similarly. Chlorine-containing compounds and hydrogen peroxide are the most used among them. The active component in the composition of chlorine bleaches is chlorine. In the composition of hydrogen peroxide the element that responsible for bleaching is oxygen.  
As known, oxygen percentage in the composition of peroxide is higher compared to water. The elements and chlorine, and oxygen are very active oxidants. The fact that they are located in the upper periods indicates to us that they have in the structure of their nuclei less particles with gravity fields, than elements of the lower lying periods. And that fact that and oxygen and chlorine under normal conditions are in a gaseous state indicates to us that in their composition there are many particles with repulsion fields.
The characteristic feature of both types of elements is the presence in the composition of their surface layers a significant number of particles of two colors – blue and red.
As we have already learned, not only visible photons can belong to one of the three primary colors. Particles of any level of any Plan have in their composition the particles of the three primary colors (blue, yellow and red).
So, the particles of red and blue colors in the surface layers of elements – this is primarily IR and radio photons. Exactly the particles of blue color are responsible for the existence of areas in the elements on their surface, where the Field Attraction outwardly manifests, herewith sufficient in magnitude for accumulation there of sufficient number of free particles.
Elements of chlorine have the higher total percentage of such zones than elements of oxygen. That is why any chlorine element always accumulates more free particles than any element of oxygen. Due to the fact that the magnitude of Attractive Fields and in oxygen, and in chlorine is incomparably more than in any metal element, they very good give away the accumulated particles to the elements with more pronounced metallic properties. This is precisely their "oxidizing ability". Elements of chlorine are always stronger oxidants, than oxygen elements. Among the accumulated free particles there are many visible photons of all colors. When oxygen or chlorine in the composition of bleachers contacts with elements of bleached substances, they give them their accumulated particles.
As a result, an excessive number of visible photons appears on the surface of the elements in the composition of the bleached substances.  This leads to the lightening the color tones of substance. The mechanism of lightening is absolutely the same as in the case of action of sunlight.

   

суббота, 11 марта 2017 г.

11. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (INHERENT FROM THE BEGINNING). WHITE AND BLACK COLORS

11. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (INHERENT FROM THE BEGINNING). WHITE AND BLACK COLORS

Besides the fact that any colors change their tone in response to a change of intensity of the falling radiation, there are colors initially with a lighter tone and colors of darker tone.
So, there are substances having the same color. But in this case the given color of some substances has a lighter shade, and others - a darker. Why so? And that is why.  

If two substances - one of which is a lighter colored and other is a darker colored - have the same color - this fact indicates that their periphery has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of visible photons. 
However, the chemical elements responsible for color of these substances have different external manifestations of quality - i.e. the common qualitative and quantitative composition of these elements will be different. And as a consequence - Force fields of these elements will be different.  

As we said in the article "The coloration of the bodies" Force fields of chemical elements may constitute the Fields of Attraction, Fields of Repulsion or be neutral. And the magnitude of these fields can be different. Besides a separately taken element as part of the Force Field can have sections of different qualities. For example somewhere may manifest the Field of Attraction of one magnitude and on other areas of the surface - of other value.
So here the chemical elements of the lighter colored substance will have a magnitude of the Attractive Field on the areas accumulating free particles more than the elements of the darker substance. Just the sections with large Fields of Attraction accumulate free particles.  The visible photons of all colors are present among these free particles and emitting during collisions they totally  give light (white) color.   The visible photons determining the common color of chemical elements of this substance are emitted by those areas of the chemical elements, where the Force Field is neutral or its magnitude is not large, because of what small amount of free particles are accumulated on these sections (or they are not accumulated at all). Taken together visible photons giving a total color together with the visible photons of all colors determine this or that tone (light or dark) of the total color. 
Here I want to draw your attention to the next moment. If the magnitude of the Attractive Fields on those sections, which accumulate the free particles in great numbers,  is too great,  then the given substance will have not light shade of some color. No, it will be already a metal having a given color and It will be characterized by a metallic luster.  This is explained by the fact that the said sections accumulating a lot of free particles emit poorly the accumulated particles in collisions with them the bombarding luminous flux. Thus, only reflected visible photons remain mainly in the reflectivity-emitted light beam.
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White color that is inherent from the beginning for the elements of one or another  substance represents thus an extreme case of light tone of any coloration. The white color tells us that the entire surface of the chemical elements accumulates a sufficient amount of free particles, among which there are a lot of visible photons  of all colors, which will be emitted at falling on them of bombarding particles. Herewith,  in the composition of surface layers there are very little  number of areas (or not at all), which doesn't accumulate free particles and in the composition of which there are visible photons.  
And in general, there are many very light, almost white variants of color, which yet aren't absolutely white. They have a small almost indistinguishable tint of one or another color, created by emitted photons accumulated on the periphery of elements of this substance.
As for the elements of the dark-colored substance the same color as the light-colored, which was mentioned before, they have on those sections, which accumulate free particles, less Fields of Attractions, than the elements of the light-colored substance. Because of this they can emit less visible photons (accumulated in the composition of free particles) in response to the falling on them of bombarding particles.
As a result such element contains less accumulated visible photons in response to the falling on it of elementary particles in the composition of reflected-emitted light ray.  
I.e. the total light rays emitted by this element are less diluted by visible photons of all colors and the color does not seem so light. The less the Fields of Attraction of elements of substance, the less in the light ray the number of visible photons of all colors, the darker will be the tone of this light ray and correspondingly the coloration of this substance.
Black color as well as white is another one last variant of coloration of substances elements. White color is due to prevalence of visible photons of all colors among the emitted photons because of the larger magnitude of Attractive Field of the elements of this substance. And black color – this is somewhat zero coloration. And this variant is determined: at first, by the sufficiently small magnitude of the element’s Attractive Field, because of what free particles practically do not accumulate on the surface of the element. And secondly, this is because of absence on its periphery of visible photons of some particular color generally. As a result, in response to the fall on this element of elementary particles any visible photons aren’t emitted.
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Metallic luster – this is an extreme case of light coloration of elements. The Field of Attraction of the metal element is so great that the element in response to the fall of elementary particles emits very little even of accumulated optical photons. I.e. there occurs mainly only the reflection of the falling visible photons. Hence the ability of a number of metals especially in polished form to reflect in unchanged qualitative and quantitative composition.
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Thus, we can sum up a little and make a general conclusion: the chemical elements of substances colored darker (where an extreme case is black color) summarily have the less Fields of Attraction than colored lighter (where an extreme case is white color.

пятница, 20 января 2017 г.

10. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (WHEN THE INTENSITY OF THE FALLING LIGHT CHANGES)

10. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (WHEN THE INTENSITY OF THE FALLING LIGHT CHANGES) 



And now we are back again to the topic of coloration and will  consider, why there are substances painted identically, but at the same time  some of them have the lighter tones and others are darker.
At first the color of any substance under the rays of "light" falling on it (visible photons) becomes lighter. And with decreasing intensity of falling "light" -  i.e. at nightfall - the color tone becomes darker and darker. And at a minimum illumination all substances seem dark dark gray, almost black.  The explanation for this is such.
When approximately the same percentage of visible photons of all colors is contained in "light rays" emitted or reflected by the source of "light",  our visual analyzer does not distinguish between individual colors - i.e. it does not fix the prevalence of visible photons of  some one color. Our brain just characterizes the color of this "light ray" as "white", "light" apparently, because it's great the total number of visible photons entering into the eye per unit of time.  
When any substance exposed to bombardment by elementary particles (which include the visible photons), in response to this its chemical elements emit from the periphery own visible photons, whose quality determines the coloration of this substance. Together with the emission of own visible photons there occurs a reflection of falling "light rays".
In the light ray consisting of the emitted and reflected visible photons will predominate the visible photons, causing the coloration of the substance, because  in the composition of the falling "light ray" the visible photons of the same color also are necessarily present.
Addition of reflected photons to the emitted makes the total "light rays" lighter - more "white". 
As a result, the greater the intensity of the falling "light" (i.e. the more photons in the falling "light rays", the lighter becomes the tone of color coloration of the substance.
And the more the intensity of the falling "light", the more the substance color approaches the white. This arises when the number of reflected visible photons greatly exceeds the number of emitted.

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And now let's talk about why with decreasing the intensity of the falling "light rays", the tone of substance coloration becomes darker and darker. The explanation will be opposite the previous one.

The lower the intensity of the falling "light ray", the less the intensity and of the reflected  - i.e. the less number of visible photons falls per unit of time on the elements of substance, the less number of them will be reflected.  Therefore, the less light, less bright will be a visual sensation created by the total emitted-reflected "light ray".   Respectively the tone of this substance color will be darker.
And in addition to this, the less the intensity of falling "light rays", the less the number of emitted visible photons. I.e. in response to decrease in the number of bombarding particles the number of emitted particles reduces. As a result the "light shade" ("whiteness") of the total  emitted-reflected "light ray" also decreases due to the decrease of the number of emitted visible photons in its composition. Therefore the coloration of substance becomes  darker and darker.
While the intensity of falling "light rays" decreases, substance color more and more approaches to black. I.e. at nightfall the substance turns black (becomes dark). This is explained by the fact that there is a decrease of the number of emitted visible photons causing this or that coloration of the substance, due to the fact that there is a decrease of the number of falling particles, which can enhance the degree of transformation of peripheral particles and force them to leave the element.
Thus, black color is it is the absence of color caused by absence (complete or almost complete) in the total emitted-reflected "light ray" of any visible photons.

White color - it is also the absence of some specific color. However, unlike the black color the presence of white color is caused by the presence of significant amount of visible photons of all colors in the total emitted-reflected "light ray". 


пятница, 6 января 2017 г.

09. WHY SUBSTANCES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY ONE OR ANOTHER COLOR?

09. WHY SUBSTANCES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY ONE OR ANOTHER COLOR?

Two processes cause the color coloration of substances  at normal temperature (or close to it) – reflection, coupled with the emission. Under normal conditions, all substances  are just in a slightly heated condition. The temperature that is typical for normal conditions or close to it, inherent for surface layers of a celestial body of  planetary type. 
Thus, on the surface of the planet we perceive the coloration of the substances due to the reflection of the falling visible photons and of emission of the visible photons that are punched out by particles falling on the elements. Emission of the visible photons of all available types in response to bombardment by the falling on elements elementary particles together with the reflected visible photons determines the color determines the color, which this chemical element will have in our perception.  
Since our visual analyzers are tuned on the perception only of visible photons, so it's interesting for us the presence in the composition of chemical elements exactly this species of elementary particles.
How is it that the chemical elements are painted in certain colors?  
As we already know from chemistry, every chemical element has  unique, peculiar to it alone qualitative and quantitative characteristic. This characteristic indicates This characteristic the quality and quantity of all particles presented  in the composition of the element. And the Force Field of the element manifested externally precisely corresponds to this characteristic. It means that above the each particle in the composition of the surface layer we will perceive from the side or the Field of Attraction, or the Field of Repulsion. And the magnitude of these fields over each particle can have its own value different from other.  For what purpose is it said? In order to remind - where the chemical element manifests outside the Field of Attraction, there is an accumulation of free particles  coming from the Sun. These solar particles accumulating on the surface of the chemical elements contribute to the characteristics of visual perception of this chemical element - i.e. whether the element will create shine or coloration. And if it's coloration, so in which color will be painted the element? And what tone will be inherent to the color - light or dark?
Thus, I am bringing you to the next thought.  
In order to the inherent to the element color was manifested outwards, it's necessary the visible photons in the composition of its surface layers were "bared". I.e. it's necessary they were not shielded by solar free particles.  

Otherwise, when bombarded of the element by falling on it particles, exactly these accumulated free particles will be emitted. 
Thus, we can draw a conclusion that the visible photons can be "bared" only in that case, if the manifested outwards Field of Attraction is small in those areas where they are located. Otherwise the visible photons will be shielded by the solar particles accumulated on the surface.  
In case if on the surface of the chemical element together with "bared" visible photons there are the areas where the Field Of Attraction of the element is large (larger than on the areas with "bared" visible photons), so the free particles are accumulated in these areas.
Exactly areas on the surface of the element, where the free particles are accumulated, just will be responsible for the tone of color of a chemical element - light or dark. The more of these zones, the lighter will be the tone of the general color. The less number of these zones - then the darker. This is explained very easy.
Visible photons contained among the accumulated free particles will be emitted in a collision with them falling particles.  Due to these visible photons the total number of visible photons of all colors will grow in the rays of light emitted by the element. When in the "light rays" emitted or reflected by a source of "light" approximately the same percentage of visible photons of all colors is contained, our visual analyzer does not distinguish between individual colors - i.e. it does not define the prevalence of the visible photons of some one color. Our brain just characterizes the color of this "light ray" as "white", "light",  probably due to the fact that the total number of visible photons entering into the eye per unit of time is large. As a result, approximately an equal number of visible photons of all colors adds to the visible photons responsible for the color of this element. This makes the light beam lighter.
In our case, if we want to assess the color features of one or another chemical element, we are interested in the presence of visible photons in the composition of peripheral layers. 
There are types of chemical elements, where the visible photons in their composition are present and are located in the most surface layers. There may be many of them and may a little - generally. Herewith, the photons  of one from six colors. Or two colors, or three. Or all presented visible photons of all six colors numerically can be represented equally.   I.e composition and number of the presented at the periphery visible photons may change from one type of element to another. In all listed cases we just can talk about one or another color of the investigated chemical element.
Besides there are such types of chemical elements, which have very little of visible photons in their composition. And  there are such variations of elements, where the visible photons are present, but they are covered by a thick layer of elementary particles of another quality  - IR and radio photons.
We are all equal in the sense of liberty of our will, but not all are the same.  
There is no relationship between the position of a chemical element in the periodic system and predominance on its periphery of visible photons of this or that quality and correspondingly of the element coloration. 
And now let's talk about from whence optical photons are present in a composition of chemical elements and whether changes can occur in a qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements. Initial qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements arises in the process of their formation. This means that visible photons like all the other particles of varying quality accumulate in the elements in the process of formation of the elements. And note, it's very, very huge the number of particles of each sublevel of the Physical Plane as part of any element Physical Plane as part of any element. In general, the total number of particles as part of any element is unimaginably huge!
Besides the fact that the particles are accumulated   in the elements during their formation the qualitative and quantitative composition of elements can change depending on the conditions, where the element is located, and  processes that take place in it. Here are the cases, when the qualitative and quantitative composition of elements can change.  
1) The elements with manifested externally Fields of Attraction can take away ("draw off") the particles from the periphery of the elements with weaker Fields of Attraction and especially from the periphery of elements with Fields of Repulsion. By the way, all chemical reactions take place by the picking of particles from the periphery;
2) During the heating process of chemical elements they lose the particles from the periphery. And the more the heating,  the heavier particles are lost, the more the periphery of the element decays;
3) The chemical elements also accumulate particles emitted by the elements of another celestial body (for example, the Earth elements accumulate the solar radiation). The particles emitted by the starб moving by inertia, partially pass through the atmosphere and partially they are accumulated in the ionosphere. And after this they move  towards the center of the planet under the influence of Centripetal Force of Attraction, and they are absorbed by the elements during their "descent", which are encountered on the way or by those, past which the particles move.  
It should be pointed here that the Centripetal (directed towards the center) Force of Attraction of the planet influence on the particles moving by inertia through the atmosphere.
4) The qualitative and quantitative composition of the elements also changes during radioactive decay of chemical elements - elements lose their particles.
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If the substance consists of the chemical elements of the same type, then it's the easiest way to give the color evaluation of this substance. the The visible photons prevailing at the periphery of the elements of this substance determine the main color line that characterizes the given substance. The visible photons of other quality, which are contained on the periphery of the element in smaller amounts, give different shades of the "main" color. Thus, as a result there is a formation of the color of chemical element of some particular type.
If in the composition of the substance there are the chemical elements of different types, so the main color line becomes more complex an even greater extent.
As a result, we can observe in the surrounding world not so many substances painted in pure colors - i.e. into one of the colors of the rainbow (spectrum).  Very often we see the combinations of complementary colors - orange, green and violet, give birth to colors very far from pure.
Purposefully people have learned to extract and create in large volumes the coloring substances having pure colors. Exactly because of this reason the pure colors most often are present in the coloration of industrial products and of packaging of food products.

суббота, 17 сентября 2016 г.

08. OPTICALLY PERCEIVED PROPERTIES OF MATTER

08. OPTICALLY PERCEIVED PROPERTIES OF MATTER

And now, after we have discussed, what constitutes the processes of emission and reflection of elementary particles (including visible photons),  let's consider the reasons for which we anyway optically perceive substances of surrounding us bodies and environments. 
All substances of the surrounding world depending on whether, can we or not to see through them, should be divided into two main groups:  
1) Transparent;

2) Opaque.
After we have identified the substance under investigation into one of these groups, we should make one more classification. According to a second classification all substances:
1) Or are painted in one of the six colors of the spectrum (rainbow are colored in one of the six colors of the spectrum (rainbow);
2) Or are colored in a mixture of two or more colors of the spectrum;
3) Or are colorless;
4) Or white, or black, or combine both properties - gray;  
5) Or have a metallic luster;
6) Or combine coloration with glitter;
7) Or combine colorless with glitter.
Coloration, shine or colourlessness in conjunction with the transparency or opacity - these are the optical properties of the substance and they manifest themselves during interaction of the moving elementary particles with chemical elements of the substance. The moving visible photons are compulsory for the manifestation of shine of the substance, but they are not necessary for the manifestation of the coloration of substance. In this latter case,  the particles of other quality  can replace them - for example IR or radio photons. 
The existence of substance coloration, shine or transparency is caused by:  
1) Features of qualitative and quantitative composition of  chemical elements of the substance;
2) The quality of the bombarding particles.

Shine, transparency and most cases of coloration of substances, located on the surface of celestial bodies of planetary type (i.e in conditions of sufficiently low temperatures)  are caused by reflection and emission of visible photons. 

суббота, 9 июля 2016 г.

07. MECHANISM OF THE OCCURRENCE OF SPECTRUM

07. MECHANISM OF THE OCCURRENCE OF SPECTRUM

Let's consider what is a "spectrum", and also, why and how it arises.  
In physical experiments spectra are usually obtained by "light" transmission or through the prism, either through the narrow slits or tiny holes in the dense material. Based on the method of producing the spectra can be prismatic and interferential.
Spectrum - is a visible on the screen range of six colors smoothly transitioning from one to another. The spectrum is formed by "visible" photons of different quality.
As already stated, a light beam - this is the path traveled by "visible" photons (by elementary particles in a broader sense) in the environment.  Otherwise, we can say that this is  the way "burnt through" by visible photons (elementary particles). Herewith, photons (elementary particles) in the composition of the light beam emitted by the light source move all together. This means that visible photons of different quality don't move by different ways. Then why we see on the screen strips of different colors? Because the following occurs. 
First, we consider the mechanism of "decomposition of light" with the help of glass triangular prism. I. Newton used in his experiments  exactly such prisms. The triangular prism has three tops and three bases. In experience one of the tops of the prism was located down, and the opposing base was up.  As we remember, the violet strip in the spectrum was located on the screen closer to the base, and the red - closer to the top. The base of the prism contains more chemical elements than the top.  So, the total gravitational field of the base of the prism is more than of its top. It is this fact along with limitation the amount of light falling on the prism becomes a cause of appearance on the screen of the rainbow stripes - spectrum. The explanation is quite simple. We have already given it earlier. Let's repeat in general terms. 
Chemical elements of glass that form the prism - silicon, oxygen and metal impurities. Silicon and metal impurities are characterized by the largest Fields of Attraction compared with oxygen.  

Chemical elements of glass of the prism create the Force of Attraction in photons, which are part of the prism. Respectively, the total Force of Attraction near the base of the prism is larger than it is at the top, because  the total number of elements in the base is larger. The Force of Attraction acting from the side of the top is not big. It weakens the effect of the Attractive of the base, but so insignificantly  that almost insensibly. 
Each photon included in the material of the prism has the Force of Inertia, that moves it forward. Herewith, as already mentioned in color theory, there are photons of three primary colors - blue, yellow and red - with different speed (or amount) of destroyed (disappeared) ether.  During motion as a part of the total flow the visible photons of different quantity have the different magnitude of the Force of Inertia. Force of Attraction and  Force of Inertia interact in each photon in accordance with the Rule of Parallelogram.  
The Resultant Force is a diagonal of parallelogram constructed on the vectors of both Forces as on the sides. As a result each photon is deflected on a strictly defined angle in accordance with direction of the vector of the Resultant Force.  And we can observe the result of this deviation on the screen in the form of spectrum, where photons with different Force of Inertia deviate from the initial trajectory by their own angle. 
We can observe separation of the light beam to the spectrum only because that a very small number of visible photons enters the prism.  Do you remember, in the experience we limit the amount of "light" making a hole in the thick curtain? If the prism was illuminated by the day light, we would not have seen on the screen the spectrum.  This is explained by the fact that the total brightness of the transmitted and reflected light at day illumination would be so large that would exceed the threshold of distinction our visual analyzer.  Such a bright light we characterize as "white".
Here is a description of the interference picture.

"If we use white light representing a continuous set of wavelengths from 0,39 micrometers  (the violet boundary of the spectrum) to 0,75  micrometers  ( the red boundary of the spectrum), then the interference maxima for each wavelength will be ... shifted relative to each other and will have the form of rainbow stripes. Only for m=0 (m - this is the maximum, the author's footnote) maxima of all wavelengths coincide, and in the middle of the screen we will observe the white strip, on both sides of which we will see the symmetrically located spectrally colored stripes of maxima of first, second order, etc. (zones of violet color will be closer to the white strip, father - thу red zones)". (TI Trofimova, "The course of physics").
And here is the description of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit.  During illumination of the slit by white light the central maximum has the form of a white strip; it is common for all wavelengths (if φ = 0 the path difference is equal to zero for all λ). The Side maxima are rainbow colored because the condition of maximum for any "m" is different for different "λ". Thus, right and left of the central maximum we can observe the maxima of first..., second... and other orders facing by the violet edge toward the center of the diffraction pattern. However they are so blurred that it's impossible to obtain a clear separation of different wavelengths with the help of diffraction at a single slit". (TI Trofimova, "The course of physics").  
In the glass prism the elements of oxygen included in the glass composition were a conducting medium for "visible" photons. And in the holes and slits done in a dense material - mainly there is nitrogen of the air. However, the reason of occurrence and prismatic spectrum, and  diffractive-interferential is the same - gravitational fields of chemical elements.  In the prism this attraction from the side of the prevailing number of elements in the base. And in a hole or a slit this is because the attraction from the side of chemical elements of air at the same time with the weakening of the light flux due to the attraction  of photons of elements of the dense material, in which they are made. 
Any diffractive-interferential pattern – this is a projection on the screen of chemical elements filling the slits or holes.  Dark areas  correspond to arrangement of chemical elements. We can observe the spectrum only because the narrow slit (or the hole) transmits very little of visible photons, a significant part of which by the way is absorbed by the elements of material, where we made a slit or a hole. Exactly the weakening of the luminous flux gives us the opportunity to observe, how the chemical elements of the slit (hole) reject the moving photons by their attraction. The Force of Inertia makes photons to move. Rivalry of the Inertial Force and the Force of Attraction from the side of each chemical element in the slit or in the hole leads to emergence of the Resultant Force.  The vector of this Force will indicate the direction of motion of photons. So occurs the emergence of rainbow maxima on the screen.