пятница, 20 января 2017 г.

10. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (WHEN THE INTENSITY OF THE FALLING LIGHT CHANGES)

10. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (WHEN THE INTENSITY OF THE FALLING LIGHT CHANGES) 



And now we are back again to the topic of coloration and will  consider, why there are substances painted identically, but at the same time  some of them have the lighter tones and others are darker.
At first the color of any substance under the rays of "light" falling on it (visible photons) becomes lighter. And with decreasing intensity of falling "light" -  i.e. at nightfall - the color tone becomes darker and darker. And at a minimum illumination all substances seem dark dark gray, almost black.  The explanation for this is such.
When approximately the same percentage of visible photons of all colors is contained in "light rays" emitted or reflected by the source of "light",  our visual analyzer does not distinguish between individual colors - i.e. it does not fix the prevalence of visible photons of  some one color. Our brain just characterizes the color of this "light ray" as "white", "light" apparently, because it's great the total number of visible photons entering into the eye per unit of time.  
When any substance exposed to bombardment by elementary particles (which include the visible photons), in response to this its chemical elements emit from the periphery own visible photons, whose quality determines the coloration of this substance. Together with the emission of own visible photons there occurs a reflection of falling "light rays".
In the light ray consisting of the emitted and reflected visible photons will predominate the visible photons, causing the coloration of the substance, because  in the composition of the falling "light ray" the visible photons of the same color also are necessarily present.
Addition of reflected photons to the emitted makes the total "light rays" lighter - more "white". 
As a result, the greater the intensity of the falling "light" (i.e. the more photons in the falling "light rays", the lighter becomes the tone of color coloration of the substance.
And the more the intensity of the falling "light", the more the substance color approaches the white. This arises when the number of reflected visible photons greatly exceeds the number of emitted.

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And now let's talk about why with decreasing the intensity of the falling "light rays", the tone of substance coloration becomes darker and darker. The explanation will be opposite the previous one.

The lower the intensity of the falling "light ray", the less the intensity and of the reflected  - i.e. the less number of visible photons falls per unit of time on the elements of substance, the less number of them will be reflected.  Therefore, the less light, less bright will be a visual sensation created by the total emitted-reflected "light ray".   Respectively the tone of this substance color will be darker.
And in addition to this, the less the intensity of falling "light rays", the less the number of emitted visible photons. I.e. in response to decrease in the number of bombarding particles the number of emitted particles reduces. As a result the "light shade" ("whiteness") of the total  emitted-reflected "light ray" also decreases due to the decrease of the number of emitted visible photons in its composition. Therefore the coloration of substance becomes  darker and darker.
While the intensity of falling "light rays" decreases, substance color more and more approaches to black. I.e. at nightfall the substance turns black (becomes dark). This is explained by the fact that there is a decrease of the number of emitted visible photons causing this or that coloration of the substance, due to the fact that there is a decrease of the number of falling particles, which can enhance the degree of transformation of peripheral particles and force them to leave the element.
Thus, black color is it is the absence of color caused by absence (complete or almost complete) in the total emitted-reflected "light ray" of any visible photons.

White color - it is also the absence of some specific color. However, unlike the black color the presence of white color is caused by the presence of significant amount of visible photons of all colors in the total emitted-reflected "light ray". 


пятница, 6 января 2017 г.

09. WHY SUBSTANCES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY ONE OR ANOTHER COLOR?

09. WHY SUBSTANCES ARE CHARACTERIZED BY ONE OR ANOTHER COLOR?

Two processes cause the color coloration of substances  at normal temperature (or close to it) – reflection, coupled with the emission. Under normal conditions, all substances  are just in a slightly heated condition. The temperature that is typical for normal conditions or close to it, inherent for surface layers of a celestial body of  planetary type. 
Thus, on the surface of the planet we perceive the coloration of the substances due to the reflection of the falling visible photons and of emission of the visible photons that are punched out by particles falling on the elements. Emission of the visible photons of all available types in response to bombardment by the falling on elements elementary particles together with the reflected visible photons determines the color determines the color, which this chemical element will have in our perception.  
Since our visual analyzers are tuned on the perception only of visible photons, so it's interesting for us the presence in the composition of chemical elements exactly this species of elementary particles.
How is it that the chemical elements are painted in certain colors?  
As we already know from chemistry, every chemical element has  unique, peculiar to it alone qualitative and quantitative characteristic. This characteristic indicates This characteristic the quality and quantity of all particles presented  in the composition of the element. And the Force Field of the element manifested externally precisely corresponds to this characteristic. It means that above the each particle in the composition of the surface layer we will perceive from the side or the Field of Attraction, or the Field of Repulsion. And the magnitude of these fields over each particle can have its own value different from other.  For what purpose is it said? In order to remind - where the chemical element manifests outside the Field of Attraction, there is an accumulation of free particles  coming from the Sun. These solar particles accumulating on the surface of the chemical elements contribute to the characteristics of visual perception of this chemical element - i.e. whether the element will create shine or coloration. And if it's coloration, so in which color will be painted the element? And what tone will be inherent to the color - light or dark?
Thus, I am bringing you to the next thought.  
In order to the inherent to the element color was manifested outwards, it's necessary the visible photons in the composition of its surface layers were "bared". I.e. it's necessary they were not shielded by solar free particles.  

Otherwise, when bombarded of the element by falling on it particles, exactly these accumulated free particles will be emitted. 
Thus, we can draw a conclusion that the visible photons can be "bared" only in that case, if the manifested outwards Field of Attraction is small in those areas where they are located. Otherwise the visible photons will be shielded by the solar particles accumulated on the surface.  
In case if on the surface of the chemical element together with "bared" visible photons there are the areas where the Field Of Attraction of the element is large (larger than on the areas with "bared" visible photons), so the free particles are accumulated in these areas.
Exactly areas on the surface of the element, where the free particles are accumulated, just will be responsible for the tone of color of a chemical element - light or dark. The more of these zones, the lighter will be the tone of the general color. The less number of these zones - then the darker. This is explained very easy.
Visible photons contained among the accumulated free particles will be emitted in a collision with them falling particles.  Due to these visible photons the total number of visible photons of all colors will grow in the rays of light emitted by the element. When in the "light rays" emitted or reflected by a source of "light" approximately the same percentage of visible photons of all colors is contained, our visual analyzer does not distinguish between individual colors - i.e. it does not define the prevalence of the visible photons of some one color. Our brain just characterizes the color of this "light ray" as "white", "light",  probably due to the fact that the total number of visible photons entering into the eye per unit of time is large. As a result, approximately an equal number of visible photons of all colors adds to the visible photons responsible for the color of this element. This makes the light beam lighter.
In our case, if we want to assess the color features of one or another chemical element, we are interested in the presence of visible photons in the composition of peripheral layers. 
There are types of chemical elements, where the visible photons in their composition are present and are located in the most surface layers. There may be many of them and may a little - generally. Herewith, the photons  of one from six colors. Or two colors, or three. Or all presented visible photons of all six colors numerically can be represented equally.   I.e composition and number of the presented at the periphery visible photons may change from one type of element to another. In all listed cases we just can talk about one or another color of the investigated chemical element.
Besides there are such types of chemical elements, which have very little of visible photons in their composition. And  there are such variations of elements, where the visible photons are present, but they are covered by a thick layer of elementary particles of another quality  - IR and radio photons.
We are all equal in the sense of liberty of our will, but not all are the same.  
There is no relationship between the position of a chemical element in the periodic system and predominance on its periphery of visible photons of this or that quality and correspondingly of the element coloration. 
And now let's talk about from whence optical photons are present in a composition of chemical elements and whether changes can occur in a qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements. Initial qualitative and quantitative composition of chemical elements arises in the process of their formation. This means that visible photons like all the other particles of varying quality accumulate in the elements in the process of formation of the elements. And note, it's very, very huge the number of particles of each sublevel of the Physical Plane as part of any element Physical Plane as part of any element. In general, the total number of particles as part of any element is unimaginably huge!
Besides the fact that the particles are accumulated   in the elements during their formation the qualitative and quantitative composition of elements can change depending on the conditions, where the element is located, and  processes that take place in it. Here are the cases, when the qualitative and quantitative composition of elements can change.  
1) The elements with manifested externally Fields of Attraction can take away ("draw off") the particles from the periphery of the elements with weaker Fields of Attraction and especially from the periphery of elements with Fields of Repulsion. By the way, all chemical reactions take place by the picking of particles from the periphery;
2) During the heating process of chemical elements they lose the particles from the periphery. And the more the heating,  the heavier particles are lost, the more the periphery of the element decays;
3) The chemical elements also accumulate particles emitted by the elements of another celestial body (for example, the Earth elements accumulate the solar radiation). The particles emitted by the starб moving by inertia, partially pass through the atmosphere and partially they are accumulated in the ionosphere. And after this they move  towards the center of the planet under the influence of Centripetal Force of Attraction, and they are absorbed by the elements during their "descent", which are encountered on the way or by those, past which the particles move.  
It should be pointed here that the Centripetal (directed towards the center) Force of Attraction of the planet influence on the particles moving by inertia through the atmosphere.
4) The qualitative and quantitative composition of the elements also changes during radioactive decay of chemical elements - elements lose their particles.
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If the substance consists of the chemical elements of the same type, then it's the easiest way to give the color evaluation of this substance. the The visible photons prevailing at the periphery of the elements of this substance determine the main color line that characterizes the given substance. The visible photons of other quality, which are contained on the periphery of the element in smaller amounts, give different shades of the "main" color. Thus, as a result there is a formation of the color of chemical element of some particular type.
If in the composition of the substance there are the chemical elements of different types, so the main color line becomes more complex an even greater extent.
As a result, we can observe in the surrounding world not so many substances painted in pure colors - i.e. into one of the colors of the rainbow (spectrum).  Very often we see the combinations of complementary colors - orange, green and violet, give birth to colors very far from pure.
Purposefully people have learned to extract and create in large volumes the coloring substances having pure colors. Exactly because of this reason the pure colors most often are present in the coloration of industrial products and of packaging of food products.