воскресенье, 19 марта 2017 г.

12. WHITENING EFFECT OF THE SUN AND BLEACHERS

12. WHITENING EFFECT OF THE SUN AND BLEACHERS

Surely you noticed that things for a long time exposed to intense solar radiation “lose color”. “Loss of color” means that the tone of things’ color becomes lighter.  Used in everyday life bleaching agents have exactly the same effect on the color of things. What happens in this case with the chemical elements of the bleached substances?
If we explain what is happening in a nutshell, then everything is very simple - excess amount of free elementary particles are accumulated on the surface of chemical elements. And among these elementary particles there are many visible photons of all colors.    
Let’s, at first, consider the mechanism of “loss of color” on the example of the action of solar radiation.
The solar particles emitted by the Sun moving by inertia reach the planets. They continue their movement. Herewith they are attracted by elements of the atmosphere, through which they move. Chemical elements of the atmosphere accumulate free particles on their surface. Further these particles descend towards the center of the planet, moving from element to element on their surface.
Thus, elements of all substances on the surface accumulate free particles in two ways. Either those particles are accumulated that inertially move in the composition of a light ray and directly collide with these elements. Or those particles are accumulated, which move from element to element, flowing down.  
So, when the elements of some substance accumulate particles, directly meeting their flow, experiencing a collision with them, then they accumulate much more particles (including visible photons), if when they accumulate particles moving from element to element.
That's why, when substances are exposed to direct sunlight (in a hot climate and in the hot season), they accumulate on their surface excessive amount of free particles and therefore of visible photons of all colors. As result, there occurs color clarification of this substance. The mechanism of color clarification is described in detail in the article “Light and dark color tones (when the intensity of the falling light changes)”.
 Bleaching agents work similarly. Chlorine-containing compounds and hydrogen peroxide are the most used among them. The active component in the composition of chlorine bleaches is chlorine. In the composition of hydrogen peroxide the element that responsible for bleaching is oxygen.  
As known, oxygen percentage in the composition of peroxide is higher compared to water. The elements and chlorine, and oxygen are very active oxidants. The fact that they are located in the upper periods indicates to us that they have in the structure of their nuclei less particles with gravity fields, than elements of the lower lying periods. And that fact that and oxygen and chlorine under normal conditions are in a gaseous state indicates to us that in their composition there are many particles with repulsion fields.
The characteristic feature of both types of elements is the presence in the composition of their surface layers a significant number of particles of two colors – blue and red.
As we have already learned, not only visible photons can belong to one of the three primary colors. Particles of any level of any Plan have in their composition the particles of the three primary colors (blue, yellow and red).
So, the particles of red and blue colors in the surface layers of elements – this is primarily IR and radio photons. Exactly the particles of blue color are responsible for the existence of areas in the elements on their surface, where the Field Attraction outwardly manifests, herewith sufficient in magnitude for accumulation there of sufficient number of free particles.
Elements of chlorine have the higher total percentage of such zones than elements of oxygen. That is why any chlorine element always accumulates more free particles than any element of oxygen. Due to the fact that the magnitude of Attractive Fields and in oxygen, and in chlorine is incomparably more than in any metal element, they very good give away the accumulated particles to the elements with more pronounced metallic properties. This is precisely their "oxidizing ability". Elements of chlorine are always stronger oxidants, than oxygen elements. Among the accumulated free particles there are many visible photons of all colors. When oxygen or chlorine in the composition of bleachers contacts with elements of bleached substances, they give them their accumulated particles.
As a result, an excessive number of visible photons appears on the surface of the elements in the composition of the bleached substances.  This leads to the lightening the color tones of substance. The mechanism of lightening is absolutely the same as in the case of action of sunlight.

   

суббота, 11 марта 2017 г.

11. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (INHERENT FROM THE BEGINNING). WHITE AND BLACK COLORS

11. LIGHT AND DARK COLOR TONES (INHERENT FROM THE BEGINNING). WHITE AND BLACK COLORS

Besides the fact that any colors change their tone in response to a change of intensity of the falling radiation, there are colors initially with a lighter tone and colors of darker tone.
So, there are substances having the same color. But in this case the given color of some substances has a lighter shade, and others - a darker. Why so? And that is why.  

If two substances - one of which is a lighter colored and other is a darker colored - have the same color - this fact indicates that their periphery has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of visible photons. 
However, the chemical elements responsible for color of these substances have different external manifestations of quality - i.e. the common qualitative and quantitative composition of these elements will be different. And as a consequence - Force fields of these elements will be different.  

As we said in the article "The coloration of the bodies" Force fields of chemical elements may constitute the Fields of Attraction, Fields of Repulsion or be neutral. And the magnitude of these fields can be different. Besides a separately taken element as part of the Force Field can have sections of different qualities. For example somewhere may manifest the Field of Attraction of one magnitude and on other areas of the surface - of other value.
So here the chemical elements of the lighter colored substance will have a magnitude of the Attractive Field on the areas accumulating free particles more than the elements of the darker substance. Just the sections with large Fields of Attraction accumulate free particles.  The visible photons of all colors are present among these free particles and emitting during collisions they totally  give light (white) color.   The visible photons determining the common color of chemical elements of this substance are emitted by those areas of the chemical elements, where the Force Field is neutral or its magnitude is not large, because of what small amount of free particles are accumulated on these sections (or they are not accumulated at all). Taken together visible photons giving a total color together with the visible photons of all colors determine this or that tone (light or dark) of the total color. 
Here I want to draw your attention to the next moment. If the magnitude of the Attractive Fields on those sections, which accumulate the free particles in great numbers,  is too great,  then the given substance will have not light shade of some color. No, it will be already a metal having a given color and It will be characterized by a metallic luster.  This is explained by the fact that the said sections accumulating a lot of free particles emit poorly the accumulated particles in collisions with them the bombarding luminous flux. Thus, only reflected visible photons remain mainly in the reflectivity-emitted light beam.
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White color that is inherent from the beginning for the elements of one or another  substance represents thus an extreme case of light tone of any coloration. The white color tells us that the entire surface of the chemical elements accumulates a sufficient amount of free particles, among which there are a lot of visible photons  of all colors, which will be emitted at falling on them of bombarding particles. Herewith,  in the composition of surface layers there are very little  number of areas (or not at all), which doesn't accumulate free particles and in the composition of which there are visible photons.  
And in general, there are many very light, almost white variants of color, which yet aren't absolutely white. They have a small almost indistinguishable tint of one or another color, created by emitted photons accumulated on the periphery of elements of this substance.
As for the elements of the dark-colored substance the same color as the light-colored, which was mentioned before, they have on those sections, which accumulate free particles, less Fields of Attractions, than the elements of the light-colored substance. Because of this they can emit less visible photons (accumulated in the composition of free particles) in response to the falling on them of bombarding particles.
As a result such element contains less accumulated visible photons in response to the falling on it of elementary particles in the composition of reflected-emitted light ray.  
I.e. the total light rays emitted by this element are less diluted by visible photons of all colors and the color does not seem so light. The less the Fields of Attraction of elements of substance, the less in the light ray the number of visible photons of all colors, the darker will be the tone of this light ray and correspondingly the coloration of this substance.
Black color as well as white is another one last variant of coloration of substances elements. White color is due to prevalence of visible photons of all colors among the emitted photons because of the larger magnitude of Attractive Field of the elements of this substance. And black color – this is somewhat zero coloration. And this variant is determined: at first, by the sufficiently small magnitude of the element’s Attractive Field, because of what free particles practically do not accumulate on the surface of the element. And secondly, this is because of absence on its periphery of visible photons of some particular color generally. As a result, in response to the fall on this element of elementary particles any visible photons aren’t emitted.
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Metallic luster – this is an extreme case of light coloration of elements. The Field of Attraction of the metal element is so great that the element in response to the fall of elementary particles emits very little even of accumulated optical photons. I.e. there occurs mainly only the reflection of the falling visible photons. Hence the ability of a number of metals especially in polished form to reflect in unchanged qualitative and quantitative composition.
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Thus, we can sum up a little and make a general conclusion: the chemical elements of substances colored darker (where an extreme case is black color) summarily have the less Fields of Attraction than colored lighter (where an extreme case is white color.