пятница, 23 марта 2018 г.

16. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF LENSES. THE CAUSE OF ACCOMMODATION. MYOPIA AND HYPEROPIA

16. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF LENSES. THE CAUSE OF ACCOMMODATION. MYOPIA AND HYPEROPIA

1)   The mechanism of action of lenses.
Let's get down to explaining the functioning of the device, which occupies an important place in the life of many people. As you know, glasses correct the process of visual perception in people with impaired vision. The glasses use different types of lenses. They - the lenses - are devices that change the trajectory of the movement of light rays - that is, refracting them.
We do not want to get ahead of ourselves greatly, however, it should be recalled that in the book devoted to the mechanics of elementary particles ("Ethereal mechanics") we paid much attention to the causes and mechanism of changing the trajectory of moving particles. And the main reasons for the change in the trajectory, if you remember, were called the Fields of Attraction and Repulsion.  So, in this article we will only try to apply in concrete ways the processes that we have already discovered.
In addition to glasses there are many other types of optical instruments, where a person uses lenses - magnifier, binoculars, telescope, microscope… These are the most basic.
Our eyes - is also a kind of optical devices. And, as befits such devices, they have in their composition lenses - crystalline lens. Inside the eye, or rather, inside the ciliary body there are muscles that control the shape of the crystalline lens - increase or decrease its curvature. These muscles are called – accommodative, since the change in the shape of the crystalline lens is an act of accommodation (adaptation). These muscles are connected with the crystalline lens with the help of the zinn ligaments. When the muscle is relaxed, the distance between it and the crystalline lens increases and the ligaments are stretched - the curvature of the lens decreases. I.e. the crystalline lens (lens) becomes more elongated, more flat. Muscles relax - it decreases its distance to the crystalline lens, and as a result - the tension of the zinn ligaments is weakened. As a result, the curvature of the crystalline lens increases, since the relaxed ligaments do not stretch it.
Conventional lenses, made of glass, it can be any shape - and convex (light collecting), and concave (dissipating). Light collecting lenses convert a parallel beam of light rays into a converging beam. Dissipating lenses, on the contrary, transform a parallel beam into a divergent one. The crystalline lens is an example of a light collecting lens. The degree of convexity or concavity can be any, including a very small, tending to zero. But it will still exist.
Optical devices use lenses of all kinds - convex, concave, convex-concave, biconvex and biconcave. Herewith the curvature of both surfaces of the lens can be any – it all depends on the specific tasks, which are sought to achieve with this device.
Why do we need different curvature - and the crystalline lens, and glass lenses? And how does this affect the features of the resulting image (ie, passed through it)?
To answer these and other questions, we need to recall the experiments of I. Newton with glass prisms, with which he decomposed white light into the spectrum. Why do we need this?
The thing is that when light passes (photons of the visible range) through the lens, happens to them is the same as when they pass through the prism. Photons (like any other energy units of the universe) are deflected under the action of the total Attraction Field of the lens material. Just as they were rejected in the experiments of I. Newton under the action of the total Field of Attraction of the substance of the prism.
Accordingly, it is not difficult to conclude that the total Field of Attraction from those parts of the lens (or prism), where the thickness of the substance is greater, will also be larger. Therefore, in the experiment of I. Newton photons are displaced (refracted) namely in the direction of the base of the prism not to the top. The same process we can observe in the lens - where the substances are larger - light rays are deflected (refracted) there.
If the lens is convex, then there will be more substance along its axis (toward the center) than along the edges.
The thickening along the axis of the lens can be negligible. However, even if it is so, it still exists. And the attraction from the central part of the lens will be at least not much, but more than from the edges.
If the lens is concave, then at the edges the thickness of the substance will be greater than in the region of the lens axis.
And in this case, the attraction from the substance of the edges is greater than the attraction of the central area of the lens.
That is why a convex (collecting) lens deflects photons (and any other particles) closer to the center of its axis, and a concave (dissipative) - closer to the edges. And because the image "passed" through a convex lens, is reduced in size. And the rays after such a lens converge at one point earlier than if they had not passed through it.
The image "passed" through a concave lens, on the other hand, expands, increases, since photons of light rays are attracted by the edges and deviate in their direction.
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2) Reason for accommodation. Myopia and hyperopia.
And now let us turn to the reasons of accommodation and the issue of correcting myopia and hyperopia. Let's start with the second point.
Please note, in this part of the article we will first give the known facts concerning the explanation of the causes of these visual impairments. Therefore, those who know these facts can become bored. Take your time. After that, we promise you interesting conclusions on this issue. 
Both nearsightedness and farsightedness are eye diseases caused by changes in the accommodative muscle that controls the magnitude of curvature of the lens. As already mentioned, this muscle is located in the thickness of the ciliary body. The ligaments lead from the muscle to the crystalline lens. When the muscle is relaxed, it is farther from the crystalline lens and ligaments are stretched. So, the crystalline lens is flattened (its curvature is less). In contrast, when the muscle contracts, it is compressed and close to the crystalline lens. Accordingly, the tension of the ligaments decreases, and the crystalline lens becomes more round (ie its curvature increases).
So, the short-sightedness is a strengthening of the functional activity of the accommodative muscles due to the peculiarities of the (life) and heredity. The strain of the eye, associated with attempts to see something at close range, increases myopia. With myopia, the muscle gets used to being in a tense, shortened state. Working conditions do not stimulate myopic people to turn their gaze into the distance. They are constantly looking at something near. Such people either read a lot, or are engaged in "jewelry" work.
When the crystalline lens is not stretched, the thickness of the substance increases in the central part of this lens. Therefore, the total Field of Attraction from this region increases. And photons are attracted and deviate to the central part of the crystalline lens to a greater extent than with the less its curvature.
A person with hyperopia, on the contrary, sees better in the distance than near. Hyperopia develops when the functional activity of the accommodative muscle is weakened. It is poorly contracted, and because of this, the ligaments stretch the crystalline lens even when they should not do this.
In the central part of the crystalline lens, the thickness of the substance decreases, when this lens expands. So, the total Field of Attraction from the side of this area decreases. And photons are attracted and deviate to the central part of the crystalline lens less than when the curvature of the crystalline lens was larger.
Hyperopia is common vision pathology in the elderly. And it is due to the general weakening in the senile organism of the functional activity of all muscle groups.


And now an interesting observation promised at the beginning of this part of the article.
Let's think about the next question. Why does the crystalline lens in general need to distinguish between light rays coming from different distances? Why does the crystalline lens need to be constantly readjusted depending on whether the person (or animal) is looking into the distance, or looks at the bodies near? After all, it would seem that the light rays are everywhere the same. At least, this is what modern science affirms. The speed of light is regarded as a constant value. Therefore, the speed of light rays coming into the eye from afar and from a close distance, in accordance with the statements of modern scientists, will be the same. And the color composition of the waves is the same.
Then why do we need accommodation? Why the crystalline lens with the same form can’t equally well meet and bring to the retina both the far rays, and the near rays? Why do we need this permanent changeover?
Science neatly ignores this question. Herewith, it is believed that the phenomenon of accommodation is disclosed in detail. In this case, once again we can be convinced that science is often limited to ascertaining and describing the consequences leaving the causes of the phenomena without the necessary attention.
The human body is a clever mechanism that is constantly busy, adjusting itself to the surrounding conditions. And the adjustment of the crystalline lens is one such example.
Let's get down to explaining the reasons of accommodation. And this reason is quite simple.
Light rays are not at all the same in speed, as is commonly assumed. The speed of light is not constant. Of course, the difference in the speed of light rays can be so insignificant that it is neglected in measurements. But the organism does not neglect. It defines the slightest difference in the speed of light rays and accordingly readjusts the crystalline lens.
If you remember, when we talked about the inertial motion of elementary particles, we found out that the Yin particles move with gradual deceleration, while the particles Yang - with gradual acceleration. However, if there are particles of both types in the light beam, there will be a redistribution of energy. As a result, Yin particles are accelerating, and Yang are decelerating. And all of the particles move in a stream with a certain uniform total rate. 
In addition, photons of light, about which we are talking – these are particles of the upper levels of the Physical Plane. These levels are the so-called ethereal subplanes of the Physical Plane. The percentage of Yin particles is larger among the particles of the Physical Plane. Particles Yang best of all are emitted and reflected by chemical elements. As part of the Physical Plane, Yang are particles of red color. However, such particles make up only 1/3 of all the particles. Others Yin. As a result, in the composition of any light ray, most of the particles are yellow. They possess the Field of Attraction. But still its magnitude is much smaller than that of blue particles. Therefore, yellow ones are emitted or reflected (when heated or collided) much better than blue ones. This was said in order to make it clear that the light rays of the Physical Plane necessarily slow down over time.
From this we can draw a simple conclusion. The speed of the rays emitted earlier is less than the speed of the rays emitted later. Of course, provided that the chemical composition and temperature of the bodies emitting and reflecting light are everywhere approximately the same. We can formulate this rule a little differently. The speed of the rays that have traveled a greater distance is less than the speed of the rays that have traveled a smaller path.
And from this conclusion it follows that the light rays entering the eye from a short distance are characterized by a greater speed than the more distant light rays.
But this is not the end of the explanation. What relation does the speed of light rays have to the curvature of the crystalline lens?
To begin with, there are two types of photoreceptors in the retina of the human and animal eyes: rods and cones. The cones, in contrast to the rods, perform a more detailed analysis of the image. We can say that they are responsible for the sharpness, clarity of perception of all the details. Rods, rather, perceive a common image, silhouette, without distinguishing individual small details.
In most of the daytime animals and in humans, the cones are located in the central part of the retina. The central fossa of the yellow spot consists only of cones. At the same time, on the periphery of the retina, the rods predominate numerically over the cones.
This is the first.
The second. In the second book, devoted to the Mechanics of Elementary Particles (“Ethereal mechanics”), we paid much attention to the features of the action on elementary particles of various Forces, including their simultaneous action.
When a photon of light, moving by inertia, enters the crystalline lens, its trajectory is refracted towards the central part of this eye lens, since the crystalline lens is a biconvex lens, and in its central part the amount of substance is larger (and, hence, the total Field of Attraction is lager).  The greater the curvature, the greater the thickness of the lens (ie the greater the amount of the substance along the axis), and the greater the angle of deflection of the light rays.
If you remember, the inertial motion of photons occurs for the reason that in each photon there is the Force of Inertia. This Force of Inertia is the ether emitted by the posterior hemisphere and forcing the particle to move forward. The Inertia Force competes in a photon with the Force of Attraction on the part of the crystalline lens material. In accordance with the Rule of Parallelogram. As a result, the photon changes the direction of motion. And its new trajectory will coincide with the direction of the vector of the resulting Force. The greater the Force of Inertia, the greater the particle velocity. This means that the Force of Inertia is greater in faster light rays. And, accordingly, the greater the Force of Inertia, the greater the Force of Attraction in order to "balance" the Force of Inertia.
And how to do it and what is it for? 
To do this simply - increasing the curvature of the crystalline lens. The greater the curvature, the greater the Force of Attraction. This allows you to deflect to the desired angle of light rays with greater speed. On the contrary, the small curvature is suitable for slower rays, in which the magnitude of the Inertia Force is smaller.
But why is this done? Why should the angle of refraction be constant? The reason for this was called when we talked about cones and rods. Most of the cones are in the central part of the eye. But it is the cones that are responsible for the detailed examination of bodies.
That is why a normal organism always tends to maintain the same angle of refraction of light rays by changing the shape of the crystalline lens. This is the reason for the existence of accommodation.
And now we will find out what happens to the light rays in the near-sighted and far-sighted crystalline lens.
The short-sighted crystalline lens, due to the lack of contractile activity of the accommodative muscle, weakly reacts to the desire of the organism to see something in the distance. With myopia, the curvature of the crystalline lens is too large to "match" photons that have traveled a greater distance and whose Force of Inertia is weakened to a greater extent. The large Force of Attraction of the near-sighted crystalline lens (with greater curvature) is designed for a large Inertia Force of photons at close range. And photons with a small Force of Inertia under the influence of such a large Force of Attraction are refracted to a larger angle than is necessary in order to reach the yellow spot.

As a result, photons passing through the crystalline lens closer to the periphery, being refracted, fall on the periphery of the retina, where rods predominate. As a result, more than necessary, photons passing through the crystalline lens (except for those whose path of motion coincides with the axis of the lens), refracting, falls on the periphery of the retina, where the rods predominate, and not in the region closer to the center (where the cones are). It is because of this that the sharpness of the perceived image decreases. Because of this short-sighted people see not clearly the bodies in the distance. However, removing tension from the eyes, resting and looking at the bodies in the distance, they have the opportunity to improve their vision.
With farsightedness, everything is exactly the opposite.
The weakness of the accommodative muscle leads to excessive flattening of the crystalline lens. With farsightedness, the crystalline lens does not respond well enough to the desire of the body to see anything near. The accommodative muscle must contract to relax the cinnamon ligaments and thereby increase the curvature of the crystalline lens. This does not happen, and the lens remains flattened. As a result, photons coming into the eye from a close distance, and therefore possessing a greater Force of Inertia, are refracted by an angle less than what is needed. And therefore they too are closer to the periphery of the retina, and not to its center. The word "too" is used because, with myopia, photons also find themselves closer to the periphery. The small Attraction Force of the far-sighted crystalline lens is designed for photons that came from a distance and therefore possess a smaller Inertia Force.
So, as you can see, even in the case of myopia, the photons are closer to the periphery of the retina (how much closer it depends on the severity of myopia), and with farsightedness. With the only difference is that with myopia, after refraction, they fall on the side of the retina opposite to the side of the crystalline lens through which they passed. While with farsightedness, the photons are on the same side of the retina as the side of the crystalline lens through which they enter the retina. But this applies only to those photons that do not "match" the curvature of the crystalline lens. Distant photons will be the "inappropriate" photons with myopia and hyperopia with - neighbors. "Suitable" photons - nears for nearsightedness and distant with farsightedness will be refracted to the desired angle, and fall into the central region of the retina.


четверг, 11 января 2018 г.

15. THE ACQUIRED SHINE

15. ACQUIRED SHINE

The acquired shine appears in solids during their friction against each other.
In the process of friction the bodies are squeezed and moved relative to each other.  Even a perfectly flat surface of the body is not really that. Chemical elements protrude above the surface of the body.  And the chemical elements themselves are spheres. Therefore in the composition of surface chemical elements the particles of peripheral layers protrude most of all. In bodies squeezed and moved relative to each other peripheral particles in the composition of the surface protruding elements collide with each other. Or the protruding elements themselves collide even entirely. In any case, colliding particles or elements force each other to leave the bodies, in the composition of which they are included. And as always in collisions particles leave the composition of elements and the elements - the composition of the bodies either by submitting to the Force of Pressure, or by ether transformation emitted by particles with repulsion fields in the inertially moving elements of bodies.
The greater the speed of movement of rubbing bodies, the greater the magnitude of the Pressure Forces and also the Forces of Inertia (which strengthens the degree of transformation).  If the magnitude of these Forces is greater than the magnitude of the Attraction Force retaining the particles in the composition of the elements and the elements in the composition of the body, so there is a separation either of the peripheral particles from the surface elements or of the surface elements from the body. Separation of surface chemical elements is a partial destruction of the body. So usually there occurs an alignment of the friction surfaces. Separation of peripheral particles is their emission. Ie in the process of friction the surface chemical elements of rubbing bodies emit the 2nd component of heat - elementary particles.
The loss of peripheral particles by the surface elements of rubbing bodies "denudes" deeper layers of particles in these elements. And the deeper inside the chemical elements, the larger the magnitude of the attraction fields of particles located there. As a result, the magnitude of the element's Attraction Field manifesting outward increases in those areas of chemical elements, where they lost part of the peripheral particles.  
As a result, in those zones of chemical elements, where their deep layers are bare, more number of free particles begins to accumulate, particles with repulsion fields are better hold. And in the end, there occurs an "etheric shield" in the form of ether emitted by particles. This enhances the reflectivity of the body in that place, where friction was produced. And as a consequence there occurs shine .
Rubbing bodies, unless they had a metallic shine or were transparent, must necessarily have this or that color. As already mentioned in the paragraph on color the presence of color means that a sufficient number of optical photons is contained on the periphery of the elements of a given body forming in aggregate one or another color, which manifested itself in the process of their emission in response to the fall of elementary particles moving from the sources of "light".
In the process of friction, optical photons of surface elements are in one way or another "erased” – ie are emitted during collisions. As a result, in those zones of chemical elements, where they lose optical photons, which formed the color of the elements, Fields of Attraction of elements increases and there is a process of accumulation of free particles (which have 100% solar origin). Partial or total loss of optical photons causes a loss of color in the surface elements of rubbing bodies. But only in places of their collisions. In the same places, the Fields of Attraction of elements increase (or they appear) and the accumulation of free particles. And this leads to the reflection of the falling "light" (optical photons). That's what it is - the emergence of the acquired metallic luster in rubbing bodies.
However, as we can see from experience rubbing bodies do not completely lose their color. They preserve it along with the appearance of brilliance. Why is it so?
The preservation of color is due to the fact that surface chemical elements only partially lose optical photons. There is a loss of optical photons (and other particles) only in those areas of chemical elements that collide. And those areas of elements that do not collide do not lose particles. Besides only the most protruding elements above the surfaces of rubbing bodies lose optical photons. So there is the preservation of the color inherent in the bodies.
As you understand, in order to acquired shine began to form in the rubbing bodies the surfaces of rubbing bodies should be smooth. Otherwise, pre-destruction will occur, chipping away parts of rubbing bodies until the surfaces are leveled.
Apart from this if the value of the repulsion forces arising in particles of colliding elements will exceed the force of attraction between the elements, which preserve connections between them, the destruction of rubbing bodies can occur. The greater the pressure exerted by the rubbing bodies on each other, the more the layers of surface elements penetrate each other, and the more the number of collisions increases. The greater the number of surface elements comes off. If the pressure is not large, then the number of leaving elements is much smaller.
Thus, it is a small pressure – ie surface friction - leads not to the detachment of elements, but to the detachment of particles, and the appearance of the acquired shine .
The greater the speed of movement of rubbing bodies relative to each other,  the greater is the magnitude of the repulsion forces, which leads to the fact that in a unit of time the surface elements of rubbing bodies will lose more particles. Accordingly, the acquired shine will appear faster and will be stronger.
If rubbing bodies were transparent (or one of them), then in the process of friction (grinding) they do not lose transparency. But in addition to it they acquire shine . This phenomenon we can observe in the example of all kinds of polished precious and semiprecious stones or simply of transparent plastics.  
Gases and liquids can not get the acquired shine. This is explained by the fact that the Forces of Attraction linking individual elements or elements of different molecules are small in comparison with the Repulsive Forces arising from friction. As a result, the shape of bodies in the liquid or gaseous state under pressure is easily deformed - ie elements move by the action of collision against each other. This does not contribute to the emergence of "denudation" of deep layers in the composition of surface elements. As a result, the acquired shine can not arise.